What are the different parts of the parallel lathe

Cuáles son las diferentes partes del torno paralelo
Flat Bed CNC Lathe

The parallel lathe is a mechanically driven machine that is primarily used for turning and cutting metal . Also known as a mechanical lathe, it is used mainly in machining workshops to carry out various jobs. These tasks can be carried out depending on the parts of the parallel lathe that make up the machine.

Parallel lathes have two working axes and perform tasks such as drilling, facing, cylindrical turning, boring, taper turning, threading, grooving, dicing, threading or reaming. All of them are tasks that allow molding and shaping different pieces.

The main parts of the parallel lathe

The parallel lathe receives this name because the arrangement of its main carriage allows it to machine surfaces parallel to the axis of rotation of the piece . The most important parts of the parallel lathe are the following.

The fixed head or plate

The fixed head is the part that integrates the work spindle, made of steel, which transmits the rotation movement to the piece. It is attached to the shaft of the spindle, on the left side of the lathe . The spindle is hollow so that bars of the material can pass through it. Conical roller bearings are used as spindle supports so that the spindle rotates in them without any type of friction.

The head of the spindle has a thread to screw any clamping device into it. The spindle, which uses pulleys to make the turns, is what holds the piece and makes it spin . The manufacturing quality of the spindle is key to obtaining more accurate and precise results.

The moving headstock or tailstock

The moving head can function as a workpiece holder and/or as a tool holder. This is one of the parts of the parallel lathe that can move along the bed. Thanks to a shoe on the inside of this bench, the moving head can be fixed in the desired position depending on the type of work to be carried out.

The moving head supports the machining of very long pieces or to mount drill bits or other cutting tools on its front part. It is made up of two function pieces:

  1. A lower one that is located on top of the guides
  2. Another superior one that is placed on top of the previous one

The two pieces are held together by screws that are used, above all, to adjust any piece.

The bench

The bed is the work table on which the rest of the parts of the parallel lathe are placed or fixed . Generally, this base is a single piece, made of cast iron, which sits on legs. The bench is built in a prismatic section so that the work efforts are better distributed over it.

This type of construction also means that the bench has a longer useful life and much more precise results are achieved on the piece. That is why it is required that the bench be of quality so that the best finishes are achieved.

At the top of the bench are the guides . Depending on the manufacturer and the quality of the lathe, these guides can be flat, made of steel, replaceable guides, etc.

The carriage or turret

The carriage is the part of the parallel lathe on which the tools that will machine the piece sit. It is the part that carries the tool in charge of cutting the piece , so its movement is essential to carry out any job. The carriage moves along the bed, both longitudinally and in the other two axes, and can be of two fundamental types: manual or motorized.

The carriage of a parallel lathe can perform three different movements :

  • Longitudinal movements
  • Transverse movements
  • Incline or overhead movement

A typical carriage of a parallel lathe has 5 parts:

  1. A support that is on the carriage placed transversely, which is located in the upper part of the bench and runs along the guides.
  2. The board , located on the cart and which appears hanging in the front area of ​​the bench.
  3. The transverse carriage , which is located at the top of the carriage that acts as a prominent piece.
  4. The composite support , an element that is located above the transverse carriage.
  5. The tool post , which comes with a washer and an oscillating wedge

The lunettes

The steady rests are used to support the longest pieces.

Safety elements of the parallel lathe

Within the parts of the parallel lathe, the following safety elements should be included:

  • Transparent screen against projections with microswitch
  • Emergency stop
  • Guards to protect pulleys, sprockets and transmission belts

These safety elements are parts of the parallel lathe that will prevent the operator from falling parts or materials that he is handling. In addition, it will prevent possible blows, cuts with objects, entrapments and particle projections.