Machining machinery: How many types are there?

Maquinaria de mecanizado: ¿Cuántos tipos existen?

Machining machinery includes tools that factories, workshops and/or industries use to give different shapes to solid parts . These shapes are achieved from a series of coordinates established and controlled by computer using computer numerical control (CNC).

There are different types of machining machines . Each of them has a series of specific characteristics that allow it to carry out different machining processes. Likewise, they have functions that are common and with which to carry out the required production volume.

Types of machining machinery

There are various types of machining machinery that are very common in workshops, factories and industries to carry out various jobs.

The lathe

A lathe is a type of machining machinery with which different jobs can be carried out using computerized numerical control . This machine offers great precision and accuracy and is capable of machining different types of parts, from the smallest to the largest and most complex, in a very short time.

In fact, CNC lathes are designed to work in large productions. Current lathes have adjustments for the cutting speed and rotation of the piece and have automatic tool change so that a single lathe can carry out different machining processes .

Currently, inclined bed lathes, flat bed lathes, horizontal lathes and vertical lathes can be distinguished.

The milling machine

A milling machine is a tool that shapes a part by removing chips . The machining process is carried out using a series of cutting and rotating tools called milling cutters. In the current market we can find vertical milling machines and horizontal milling machines.

The computer-controlled CNC milling machine can perform face milling, drilling, casting, engraving, revolution surface milling , ruled surface milling and swept surface milling. The milling machine software controls the position and speed of the motors. and the movement of the table and the spindle.

The filer

The filer is a type of machining machinery that works by removing chips with a linear cutting movement . The table on which the tool is located can be moved transversally or vertically to remove the material from inside the hole of the part. In this case, the cutting movement is carried out by the tool, while the feed movement is carried out by the work table.

There are various types of filers (ordinary, tableless, copier and vertical) that can perform various machining jobs. The most common are the machining of flat horizontal, vertical or inclined surfaces, grooving, nailing and flat or serrated knurling .

The grinding machine

The grinding machine is a tool that performs machining work using the abrasion procedure . The precision that the grinding machine has is much more exact and the level of roughness it leaves is lower when compared to machining by chip removal. Therefore, it is a machining machinery that acts once the material has been removed from the piece.

As its name indicates, it is a machine that rectifies the machining work already done . What it does is remove any impurities it may have to give it the precision and accuracy in the dimensions that are required. The results obtained with the grinding machine on the surface of the pieces are of higher quality.

The grinder

The grinder is a CNC machine that is responsible for satinizing or grinding through two solid discs or abrasive discs. These discs are provided with grains of different sizes to roughen the piece. There are grinders that instead of discs have sandpaper with which they sharpen the pieces to eliminate excess material.

There are three fundamental types of grinders : pedestal, belt or precision. The latter is a grinder with which flat surfaces can be created from a cylindrical and rotating cutter. A job that is carried out by removing very little material and with great precision in the finish.

The boring machine

The boring machine is a type of machinery that machines holes in cubic parts . The boring tool rotates working in those holes that need to have a very close tolerance. It is a machine that prints a superior final finishing quality on the surface of the piece. What is obtained with the boring machine is a more exact, precise hole without roughness . In this sense, the diameter of the hole, its depth and the desired surface finish, position and straightness must be taken into account. Likewise, it is very important that the speed of the boring machine spindle is adequate to work with small holes.